Financial Planning

Build up your funds for future generations

Barnett & Turner partner Jonathan Wilson considers how life insurance can become an investment. For a number of years, we have had the option of using what are called “Whole of Life” insurance policies to help to fund potential inheritance tax (IHT) liabilities.

Put simply, these policies are a form of insurance where annual premiums are paid in return for a guaranteed payment on death. They are structured in such a way that the proceeds do not form part of the deceased’s estate and therefore escape IHT.

In reality, this means the IHT liability is potentially reduced to the total cost of the premiums.

Traditionally, clients have taken out life insurance for peace of mind, so they know their beneficiaries’ inheritance tax bill will be met. They haven’t necessarily considered whether the policy proceeds represent a good return on the premiums paid. With interest rates falling to record lows, it is now more appropriate than ever to view life policies as investments.

At the time of writing, the post-tax return for a 45% taxpayer, on a very long-dated UK government gilt (49 years to redemption), is only 0.8% per annum.

A couple aged 60 can obtain £1m of second-death, last-survivor, whole-of-life cover for an annual premium of £11,700, assuming standard health terms apply.  If we were to assume that one of the policyholders lives to age 109 (a very cautious assumption to match a 49 year old gilt), the return on the total annual premiums of £573,300 is just under 2.2% per annum net of tax.

To continue with this example, we could assume, more realistically, that the life expectancy of the last survivor is 95.  In our scenario above, the effective return on the total annual premiums is £409,500 – a relatively attractive 4.73% per annum net.

However, these figures also ignore the fact that the proceeds will generally fall outside of the estate, due to the policies being held in trust.  The actual return on the policy payer is effectively enhanced further by 40% (representing the IHT that would have had to be paid had the proceeds remained within the estate) in most cases.

Therefore, life policies not only provide a lump sum for your beneficiaries, but they also provide a comparatively excellent return over the period until the beneficiaries receive the money.  Life policies can be a good-value option for building up funds for the next generation. You may benefit from advice from your IFA or Accountant tailored around your own personal circumstances.

If you would like to discuss anything related to this article please do not hesitate to call Barnett & Turner on 01623 659659 or email Jonathan at

Have you DONE enough to get a full state pension? 

Tracy Henson of accountancy firm Barnett & Turner does the sums. We all joke that by the time we reach retirement age, the state pension won’t be worth having. But let’s not give up on it just yet.  I’m still looking forward to getting my own pension and I know what I should get, but do you?  And do you know how to make your position better if you find that you haven’t already done enough to qualify for the full amount?

Whether, and to what extent, you qualify for a state pension is determined by reference to your work history or, more accurately, your National Insurance record.

It’s relatively easy for me, as an employee with a regular income, to say that my National Insurance record is building up nicely, but for the self-employed and especially those in the struggling agricultural sector, it’s not so clear-cut. National Insurance reliefs claimed in the past could have a nasty sting in the tail when it comes to accruing qualifying years.

To get any state pension, you need to accrue a minimum of 10 qualifying years.  Reach this and you'll be paid 10/35ths of the full £155-pw state pension, or about £44.  If you don't manage to meet this minimum, you won't get a penny.  To get the full £155 pension you’ll need to have accrued 35 qualifying years.  Doing the maths, each additional qualifying year increases the pension by £4 per week or £208 per year.

So what is a qualifying year and what’s the issue?

  • For the self-employed, a qualifying year is one during which they have continuously paid Class 2 National Insurance.
  • Those with low earnings could (and can still) be exempted from paying Class 2 National Insurance, which is not at all uncommon in the agricultural sector, bearing in mind low profitability in recent years. Even in a good year, capital investment may have resulted in much lower taxable profits and therefore low earnings for this purpose.  Claiming exemption because of low earnings may have been sensible at the time but, not having paid the Class 2 will result in gaps in your National Insurance record and, quite possibly, a reduced state pension.

How do you know if you have a problem and, is there a fix?

If you have any concerns regarding your entitlement to a state pension – or a full state pension – we would recommend that you request a state pension statement and/or a National Insurance statement.  These statements will highlight whether there are any gaps in your National Insurance record and to what extent your state pension suffers as a result.

As regards filling any gaps, the solution is simple. At least for me it is!  I won’t reach retirement age until 30 June 2048, so I’ve got another 32 years to work and accrue qualifying years.  If you are closer to retirement age however, you can make voluntary National Insurance contributions.  It can cost as little as £145 to fill a gap year, which seems like a reasonable figure, bearing in mind the annual increase in state pension as a result will be £208.

If you would like to know how to request a state pension statement or a National Insurance statement, just ask your accountant for advice.

If you would like to discuss anything related to this article please do not hesitate to call Barnett & Turner on 01623 659659 or email Jonathan at

Making sure a break-up doesn’t break the bank

Divorce can be very painful at many levels. That’s why you don’t want the additional burden of being unnecessarily penalised by Capital Gains Tax (CGT), writes Jonathan Wilson of accountancy firm Barnett & Turner.  During the emotional upheaval of a divorce, tax considerations are generally the last thing on your mind.  By taking advice early in the process though, you may be able to avoid unnecessary tax liabilities.

The general rule is that a married couple (or civil partners), who are living together, can transfer assets between each other without paying capital gains tax, until the end of the tax year following the date of separation.

After the 5th April following your separation, these inter-spouse “no gain/no loss” transfers no longer apply.  At that point, even if you are still married, the transfer of an asset between you and your partner will be treated for tax purposes as if the spouse who is giving up their interest in the asset has received market value for that interest.  This may give rise to a capital gains tax bill if the asset has increased in value since it was acquired.

Of course, if you have limited cash resources, the CGT can be particularly unwelcome.  It’s therefore a sensible idea to consider transferring assets before the end of the tax year of separation, even if an overall financial settlement is still some way off.

But what if the separation takes place in March?

You would have less than a month to decide whether or not to transfer an asset before the end of the tax year in order to avoid a capital gain.  Unfortunately, this is just an anomaly of the regulations and does indeed create a lot of pressure.

By contrast, a couple who separate in May have eleven months to make these decisions, which might well be enough time to negotiate and implement an overall settlement.

In summary, if you are considering separation – or are in the process of separating – you should take advice on potential capital gains tax liabilities which might be triggered on a division of your assets. You should also start to think, as early as possible in the process, about how these might be mitigated.

If you would like to discuss anything related to this article please do not hesitate to call Barnett & Turner on 01623 659659 or email Jonathan at

Island life beckons if you’re an entrepreneur or investor...

Are you a non-EU resident? If so, it may be that you haven’t previously considered the option of moving to the Isle of Man. PHAEDRA BIRD of Barnett & Turner’s Associates, Crowe Clarke Whitehill reveals the ‘Enterprise Isle’ initiatives that are designed to boost inward investment. Have you ever considered becoming a resident in the Isle of Man? New tax incentives and changes in financial regulation certainly make it an attractive option. But what practicalities are involved?

There are two types of residence visas you can potentially obtain from outside the EU.

The first is the Tier 1 Entrepreneur Visa, which you can obtain for three years and four months initially by investing £200,000 in a new or existing business. The company needs to be registered, pay tax and have a bank account in the Isle of Man.

You also have to meet certain other criteria, such as proving you haven’t been absent from the IOM for more than 180 days in any 12-month period.  (The Isle is, however, inside the Common Travel Area which includes the UK, Ireland and the Channel Islands, and if you spend time in this zone, that doesn’t count as an absence. So if you wanted to visit London for the weekend, for instance, it wouldn’t set the clock running on the 180-day limit.)

You can make an application to extend the visa for another two years, provided you remain engaged in the business and have created at least two full-time jobs lasting more than 12 months.

After five years, you can apply for Indefinite Leave to Remain in the IOM and this process can be accelerated if the business expands or more jobs are created.

The other option is a Tier 1 Investor Visa by making a qualifying investment of £2 million in the IOM within three months of arrival. Again, the initial visa is for three years and four months and the same absence criteria apply.  If the money remains invested throughout the period, then you can apply to extend the visa by another two years. And, once again, application for Indefinite Leave to Remain can be made after five years, with the possibility of speeding up the process by increasing the level of funds.

So, what about dependants?

Well, a spouse and children under the age of 18 can accompany the holder of either type of visa.

As an additional incentive to Tier 1 applicants, the IOM Government is also considering exempting people who come to the Island under the visa arrangements from the requirements to obtain the work permits that are generally required for all non-IOM workers.

If you would like to discuss anything related to this article please do not hesitate to call Barnett & Turner on 01623 659659 or email Jonathan at

Four ways married couples and civil partners can reduce their tax burden

David Wilson of Barnett & Turner mentions four ways married couples and civil partners can reduce their tax burden If you’re married or have entered into a civil partnership, you certainly benefit from tax breaks that other people can’t claim. In this short discussion of family tax planning, we’ll use the word ‘spouse’ as a generic to cover husbands, wives and civil partners.

Essentially you are looking to make sure that you use all available exemptions and allowances and – where appropriate have income or capital gains in the hands of a spouse, where it may be taxed at the lowest possible rate. Some examples might include:

Registering buy-to-let property in the name of the spouse with the lowest income tax rate. Properties may be owned entirely by one spouse, as joint tenants, or as tenants in common in unequal shares. The underlying ownership determines the division of the property income. Property owned as joint tenants is divided equally, whereas property owned in differing shares – as tenants in common – is divided equally (or, upon a specific election submitted to HMRC, in accordance with the underlying ownership). In this way, the property income can be altered to suit the circumstances of the couple.

Transferring ownership of all or part of the property to the other spouse.

While it may be advantageous for one spouse to own a buy-to-let property from the perspective of income tax, it may not be so good from a capital gains tax (CGT) perspective. Prior to the sale of a property at a gain, it may be a smart idea to transfer ownership of all or part of the property to the other spouse where, for example, that spouse has significant capital losses available to offset against the gain, or has an unused CGT exemption. The ability to transfer assets between spouses without incurring any CGT liability is another tax break which is available only to married couples or civil partners.

Paying a salary or gifting shares to a non-working spouse

An individual running a business can save significant income tax by employing their spouse on a salary, or gifting shares upon which a dividend is paid. The salary payment may also possibly enhance the spouse’s state pension entitlement. These arrangements however can come under close scrutiny from HMRC. Any salary paid needs to be commercially justifiable, taking into account the duties of the employment, and must be paid. Any gifts of shares between spouses must constitute more than just an entitlement to income. It’s important to ensure that these arrangements are not open to challenge by the Revenue and are not caught under the settlement rules or even the employment related securities legislation for example, so make sure to talk to your accountant about them.

Putting savings into the name of the spouse with the lowest tax rate

By far the most common example of switching income between spouses is to put savings into the name of the spouse with the lowest tax rate. You can reduce or avoid income tax on any interest generated. With the introduction of the personal savings allowance and the 0% starting rate applicable to interest in certain circumstances, income tax savings on interest received can now be significant.

If you would like to discuss anything related to this article please do not hesitate to call Barnett & Turner on 01623 659659 or email Jonathan at

Why the year-end chat should start well in advance

Jono Wilson of accountancy firm Barnett & Turner always aims to be proactive in the advice given to clients. That way tax planning becomes so much easier. An important part of my job is to ensure that clients are informed of the tax efficient planning opportunities available to them in advance of the year end date in order to allow them sufficient time to assess each of the options available to them and decide whether these opportunities are right for them. In order to provide clients with enough time to make informed decisions in relation tax planning, these conversations need to start well in advance of the year end date to prevent any last-minute scrambles and pressurised decision making.

When it comes to discussions on efficient tax planning opportunities with clients it pays off to be proactive. Meeting with clients during the final quarter in advance of the year end, provides an excellent opportunity to discuss the business owners aspirations and strategy for the coming twelve months, allowing us to provide tailored tax planning advice which suits the specific needs of each client.

Here are some of the tax planning topics which are frequently raised in advance of the year end:


First of all, we look at the profits which have been extracted to date, then take into consideration the client’s specific circumstance in order to assess whether there are any additional requirements in the coming 12 months. This may be that the client has a big life event coming up; possibly a family wedding, a house move, maybe even planning a big family holiday or winding down to retirement. It is important to think ahead in order to ensure that the needs of the client can be met and profits can be extracted from the business in a tax efficient way.

There are several ways in which this can be achieved; looking at a combination of salary and dividends (provided the individual is a shareholder), providing a solution which fits the needs of each client while taking advantage of the tax free allowances available. There is also the additional consideration of pension contributions which are an extremely tax efficient method of profit extraction. Given that a pension fund can grow tax free, it’s an efficient way of investing in the future and has the added benefit of allowing the company to access corporation tax relief on contributions made on behalf of employees. If there is a possibility of making a contribution before the year-end date, it’s worth discussing.


Bonuses can be used to reward key members of the team who have contributed to the success of the business, but who are not necessarily shareholders. Depending on the employee’s level of earnings, the marginal rate of tax payable on a bonus may be significant. Perhaps it would be more beneficial to discuss the potential of an additional pension contribution or the provision of other benefits to top up their remuneration package, such as a company car?


Where a company has undertaken significant investment in capital expenditure during a financial year for the purpose of their trade, there can be some very beneficial tax reliefs available in the form of Capital Allowances. It is also possible to claim 100% tax relief on qualifying expenditure by utilising the Annual Investment Allowance (“AIA”) available to businesses, up to a value of £200,000.

When advising clients in the lead up to their year-end date, it is also worthwhile discussing whether they are utilising their AIA in full and whether there is any additional expenditure which is likely to be incurred in advance of the year end.  As the AIA is a use it or lose it allowance it is important to discuss the timing of capital expenditure with clients as it may be worthwhile to defer expenditure into the next year if the AIA has already been fully utilised in the current period.


Companies involved in a qualifying R&D activity may claim additional tax relief on certain costs incurred directly in the R&D process. The rate at which relief is given is dependent on various factors, however it is possible to access additional relief of up to 130%. Engaging in discussion with clients in advance of the year end can allow you to ascertain whether they have undertaken activities which you think may qualify for R&D tax relief. Small and Medium Enterprises can surrender tax losses generated by R&D tax relief to create a cash repayment, which is another factor which can be useful in discussing tax planning opportunities with clients. .


The current market may result in previously profitable companies making current year tax losses. If a company has been profitable and paid CT in the previous 12 months there is potential to utilise these current year losses against the prior year’s profits and generate a tax repayment. Liaising with your client as early as possible may allow them to access these repayments at an earlier stage. This can be of great benefit to companies where ‘Time-To-Pay’ arrangements are in place for tax liabilities currently overdue and cash flow is tight.


Many of the clients which I deal with are family owned businesses. It is an important aspect of my role to assist clients not only with potential tax planning opportunities in advance of the company’s year-end date but also to engage in discussions surrounding the future success of the business and the owner’s plans for the future. Commencing discussions of succession strategy and the future strategy for exiting the business allows the management team time to consider how this will be achieved and begin putting the necessary operational frameworks in place to achieve these long term objectives. It is also important to assess how any shareholder who is planning to exit the business can do so in a way which fits with the aspirations of the company, whilst also being achieved in as tax efficient a way as possible for both the company and the individuals involved.

If you would like to discuss anything related to this article please do not hesitate to call Barnett & Turner on 01623 659659 or email Jonathan at

Some great ideas to help your grandchildren

There are a number of steps grandparents can take to help their grandchildren financially, argues Jonathan Wilson of Barnett & Turner. In fact, they may be in a stronger position in this respect than the kids’ parents. Everyone wants to do the very best they can for their children. It may be, however, that grandparents are in the strongest position to help when it comes to finances.

Some of the basic options are really simple. Every individual can make a £3,000 gift each year, free from inheritance tax, for instance. This won’t form part of the sums considered for the seven-year exclusion period usually applied to gifts prior to death.

Contributions to Junior ISAs might be something to consider. And pension contributions can be very efficient too. For a £2,880 contribution, the government tops up by 20%, leading to a gross figure of £3,600 – the maximum on which a non-earner can gain relief. And this can be doubled if both grandparents are around.

Understanding Trusts

Discretionary Family Trusts can seem a little more obscure and off-putting, but are well worth discussing with your accountant.

If a parent sets up a trust, it is deemed to be ‘settlor-interested’ and all of the income is treated as belonging to the parents and taxed accordingly. This issue doesn’t arise if we’re talking about grandparents.

Very often, you might choose to help with school fees or create a pot of money that can be used for university. If circumstances allow, each grandparent can transfer in up to £325k in cash or assets not covered by other inheritance tax relief. Anything above this figure is subject to lifetime inheritance tax at 20%.

Company Shares

As discussed above, assets such as cash may be transferred into trust with no immediate tax implications, subject to the £325k per person limit.  If, however, the grandparents hold shares in a trading company, subject to certain conditions such as periods of ownership, the shares are likely to qualify for 100% IHT relief.  Shares of unlimited value may therefore be transferred into Trust with no IHT liability.

Capital Gains Tax may be due on the disposal of shares into the trust, but this can be deferred or “held over” until such time as the shares are sold or passed out to a beneficiary (although again, it may be possible to hold over the liability on such a transfer).

Essentially, the deferral is until such time as there has been a real gain. The tax is levied on the difference in market value at sale and the original base cost of the shares.

If grandparents hold shares in a company, take a dividend and use this to fund, say, school fees, they pay tax at their marginal rate. The net income then goes to the child. If, however, you use a trust instead, you can appoint an interest over the trust assets to the child. Any dividends are treated as the child’s income and when you combine the £5,000 dividend tax-free threshold with the £11,000 personal allowance, the child can benefit from up to £16k tax free.

It is possible to set up trusts for reasons unrelated to tax. Trustees retain control and are responsible for the trust’s day-to-day running. Assets are ring-fenced and they decide who is going to benefit and when. They help their own inheritance tax position without adversely affecting anyone else. What’s more, grandchildren can be protected from the demands of future spouses or creditors.

It’s a complex area, so if you’re interested in finding out more, the first step is to sit down with your accountant and talk through the options. But as a grandparent, you may be in a unique position to help your family.

If you would like to discuss anything related to this article please do not hesitate to call Barnett & Turner on 01623 659659 or email Jonathan at

Invest some time to understand tax changes

Jono Wilson of Barnett & Turner Chartered Accountants and Chartered Tax Advisers examines recent changes to the treatment of investment income. “I have investment income. I am aware things have changed. I am just not sure what has changed and how it affects me…”

Tax legislation is increasingly complex and features many ‘moving targets’, so here is a brief summary of recent changes which may affect you. Some of these points may be things that are worth discussing with your tax advisor:

Dividend Allowance

From 6 April 2016, the first £5,000 of your annual dividend income is tax free. This allowance applies irrespective of your level of income and the rate at which you pay tax.

Talk to your accountant if:  you are married and you or your spouse has annual dividend income in excess of £5,000, whilst the other spouse has less than £5,000. There may be scope to transfer some investments, without incurring a tax charge, to achieve greater income tax efficiency.

New Dividend Tax Rates

For annual dividend income in excess of £5,000 new rates of tax apply.

Talk to your accountant if: you anticipate annual dividend income in excess of £5,000 for 2016/17 and you would like an estimate of the impact on your annual tax payments.

Personal Savings Allowance and the 0% Starting Rate on Savings Income

You may have noticed that, since 6 April 2016, banks and other institutions have stopped deducting tax of 20% from interest they pay to you. This doesn’t necessarily mean, however, that you no longer need to pay tax on interest and other savings income.

Basic rate taxpayers can now receive up to £1,000 in savings income tax-free, whilst higher rate taxpayers will be able to receive up to £500 (with any excess taxable via your self-assessment tax return at 20% or 40%). This new personal savings allowance is on top of the 0% starting income tax rate introduced last year. This rate applies on up to £5,000 of annual interest income for savers with relatively low employment and pension income.

Talk to your accountant if:  if you want to know how far you can benefit from the dividend and personal savings allowances, with a view to structuring your investments to offer the maximum tax- free annual income.

Marriage Allowance

This measure (introduced on 6 April 2015) allows you to transfer up to £1,050 (£1,100 since 6 April 2016) of unused annual tax-free personal allowance from a non-taxpayer to their spouse, who pays tax at basic rate. 

Talk to your accountant if: you are married and your circumstances are such that you may be able to benefit from this allowance.

Charitable Donations - Watch Out if You Tick the Gift Aid Box!

If you are in the habit of making donations to charities, you probably tick the ‘Gift Aid’ box to identify yourself as a UK tax payer. That way, your chosen charities can claim some extra income from the government. Please be aware that the extra amount claimed by the charities must be covered by the amount of tax you paid in the tax year of the donations.

If you no longer have a UK tax liability, then you should be cautious about ticking the Gift Aid box and consider withdrawing existing declarations for ongoing donations. Any shortfall between your annual tax liability and the amount claimed by the charities must be met by you personally.

Talk to your accountant if:  you make, or are planning to make, charitable donations and believe that the new rules may have reduced your tax liability.

If you would like to discuss anything related to this article please do not hesitate to call Barnett & Turner on 01623 659659 or email Jonathan at

It’s just a student loan, right?

In fact, there are two types of undergraduate loan, explains Natalie Goodall, payroll manager at Barnett & Turner. And from 2019, postgraduates may be paying back debts of their own. It’s potentially a recipe for confusion. Most of us are familiar with the basic idea of student loans. You borrow money at the outset of your degree course and start repaying it when you’re working, once your income exceeds a certain level. The outstanding sum will get written off eventually if it’s not repaid within 30 years.

The system up until now has been relatively straightforward for employers on the administrative side, but there are now some potential complications. It all stems from the launch of a new type of loan back in September 2012.

Loans issued before this date are known as the ‘Plan 1’ type and continue in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Those taken out after this point are referred to as ‘Plan 2’. The first cohort of people with Plan 2 loans graduated last year, so they’re now due to start paying back what they owe.

So what are the differences between Plans 1 and 2? Well, the repayment thresholds are the main issue. With Plan 1, you start to repay at 9% once you’re earning over £17,335, whereas the figure is £21,000 for Plan 2. A decision has been taken, following a consultation process, to freeze this latter figure for all borrowers.

If you’re an employer, you’ll need to know which type of loan the student has. Finding out is fairly straightforward, but you can’t necessarily rely on your employee knowing. To them, it was just a loan.  And what if they have both types? The rules say that the Plan 1 loan should be paid off first. But as things stand at the moment, there is no intention to issue a stop notice for it. You will, instead, have to rely on the start notice for the Plan 2 loan.

Of course, many employers will want to think they can handle this, but there is the potential for an administrative error leading to a double deduction being made. Payroll systems should take the two schemes into account and the HMRC PAYE Basic Tools package is being updated too, as you might expect. But is everything going to be watertight?

There’s then a further complication. From August this year, the Government is making postgraduate loans available to anyone under 60, which will become payable from April 2019. Although the threshold matches the Plan 2 at £21,000, the rate of repayment is 6% rather than 9% above this point. Imagine the confusion when these debts are being repaid alongside Plan 1 or Plan 2 loans.

The message here is to be prepared. Although there is nothing intrinsically complex about the arrangements, the room for administrative hiccups is going to get bigger and bigger over time.

If you would like to discuss anything related to this article please do not hesitate to call Barnett & Turner on 01623 659659 or email Jonathan at

Pensions come into their own

If you’re a business owner who’s ignored pension provision until now, the new regime should make you sit up and take notice, argues David Wilson of accountancy firm Barnett & Turner. In the past, it’s been hard to persuade some small business owners to take pensions and related guidance particularly seriously. Many may have had other investments and will have been relying on them to produce a suitable income in retirement. The restrictions in the pension rules and what you were able to draw down was certainly a psychological obstacle for a number of people.

Since the change in the regulations earlier in 2015, clients have definitely been taking more notice and have been actively reviewing their options. Some have decided to increase their company pension contributions, restrict their personal income and take tax-free cash straight away. As it’s possible to go back three years in your calculations, contributions per individual can be maximised.

When you put in additional pension contributions and draw tax-free cash, it may be possible to preserve your personal allowance for the current year. What’s more, by reducing your income, you may find yourself going down the marginal tax bands.

The company gets relief on the contributions and individuals are entitled to draw up to 25% of the fund as a tax-free lump sum. (If you draw any income, you restrict the amount you can pay into pensions in the future.)

Another point worth making is that the pension fund can be quite a useful and low-cost life assurance vehicle. That’s because if you die under the age of 75, the proposals are that the full fund will go tax free to any nominated beneficiary.

In some instances, it may be possible for a pension scheme to purchase a commercial property from the individuals that currently own it, effectively releasing equity into their own names. As well as helping with cash planning, this strategy can also reduce exposure to inheritance tax.

So now, with the new regime in place, there are plenty of interesting talking points. Overall, we try to help clients, hand in hand with their financial advisers to achieve a balanced portfolio with a spread of risks. Pensions are a more important part of the equation than ever because of the increased freedoms.

With changes to dividend rules coming into effect in April 2016, I suspect accountants and financial advisers will be having even more conversations with clients who are looking at this issue in a new light.

If you would like to discuss anything related to this article please do not hesitate to call Barnett & Turner on 01623 659659 or email Jonathan at